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Interpretation of technical solutions in three hot areas of power supply

Date: 2017-05-10
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Abstract: in the era of intelligent and networked, all kinds of new electronic products emerge in endlessly, and in every electronic product, power module has always been an inevitable subject. With the continuous emergence and development of new materials and new technologies, the performance of power modules has been improved continuously. This topic invites professionals in the field to explore the development and innovation of power supply in three aspects: power devices, photovoltaic and isolator.

Power device and power supply module

        Power management devices need small size to provide high efficiency

The control mode of switching regulators generally adopts current control mode, but the transient response characteristics of load current changes sometimes fail to meet the required specifications. As a solution, a switched voltage regulator with hysteresis control is used, which belongs to a fixed time control in the lag control, can feed back the ripple voltage generated by the output voltage, and compare the ripple voltage bottom and the reference voltage by comparator to keep the output voltage on the basis. A certain level. When the feedback voltage is lower than the reference voltage, a single pulse is generated and the high side switch is led to supply current from the input end to the output end. Compared with the comparator, the time delay of the feedback control is almost without the time delay of the feedback control, so a faster transition response characteristic can be obtained compared with the current control mode.

        H3RegTM control is the evolution version of fixed on time control, and is the unique control method of ROHM. When the load current increases rapidly, the output voltage is reduced, and more power is provided by extending the conduction time of the high side switch to speed up the recovery of the output voltage when the conduction time is determined by the feedback voltage and the output voltage is not more than the reference voltage. Accordingly, the transient response characteristic can be obtained more quickly than the fixed lead time control. In addition, because the load changes rapidly, the number of switches is less, so the noise can be reduced.

Industrial application

          Industrial application power needs high voltage step-down converter to provide high efficiency with smaller scheme size. ROHM uses the advanced power system technology and vertical integration type one dragon production line. It pays much attention to the reliability of continuous work and the long-term stable supply of industrial equipment market, and develops many new products. For example, ROHM has developed a 80V MOSFET built-in DC/DC converter "BD9G341AEFJ" for high power (high voltage and high current) communication base stations and industrial equipment fields. BD9G341AEFJ "uses the high voltage BiCDMOS of the power system process 0.6? M as the non insulated DC/DC converter to achieve the high voltage level of 80V industry. In the ROHM DC/DC converter product lineup, it is also the product with the highest pressure resistance. With the advantage of ROHM, which is good at analog design technology, it also achieves high conversion efficiency in 80V level DC/DC converters. Compared with the general product, this product can also prevent the product from being damaged by the protective circuit, even if the output pin has accidental short circuit (contact). Therefore, it helps to improve the reliability of the application products. Moreover, these advantages can only be achieved through simple small 8 pin packages, which can reduce the installation area and the number of peripheral components.

Improving product performance with high density

            Vicor is famous for its brick or module power supply. Compared with many IPM (intelligent power modules) and power devices, Vicor is a modular power system. IPM is usually the integration of power devices or power devices with control chips. Compared with the latter, the integration of Vicor's brick type or module is higher. There are power devices, control chips and many signal conditioning circuits, using unique topology to achieve high density, high efficiency and high reliability.

Vicor high density products

         The AD/DC integration scheme of Vicor is the internal two level topology, the front stage is the z-voltage switch, and the back stage is the zero voltage and zero current bus converter structure. The general power converters are two level structure, and the Vicor corresponds to the general product is the single stage transformation. Therefore, the advantage of Vicor is low cost. But the single stage efficiency is not easy to upgrade. Vicor's DC/DC is now two, so that efficiency and density are up.

         In addition, Vicor's ZVS Buck (zero voltage switch) converter uses the soft switching technology to reduce the voltage drop chip. Not only that, the lift voltage, the boost and so on are all zero voltage switches, so the loss is low, and the switching frequency can be higher than the high frequency of 1MHz.

Data center: 48V straight CPU

       Vicor has been doing Intel VR13 48V for many years. In March 9, 2016, Google released a 48V based solution and announced the adoption of the Vicor solution in the OCP (open computing project). In addition, at the Facebook OCT meeting held this year, customers have clearly proposed the adoption of 48V. At the same time, some domestic manufacturers are doing 48V to CPU program.

         At present, there will be a 48V to CPU program at home. Several million pieces of foreign products (such as Google) have been shipped abroad. In fact, the domestic Scorpio 2.5 has included 48V power, but 48V turns 12V, it is expected that Scorpio 3 will be released this year, it is likely to receive CPU directly, and there may be the 48V busbar option.

Specifically, Intel's VR13 is a voltage regulation (VR) specification for CPU, involving dynamic response, voltage adjustment precision, load line change and so on. The index is very strict and is almost strict. So the Intel VR13 circle of friends is not easy, and Vicor can provide a mature application plan.

      In fact, the voltage efficiency of 48V to CPU is almost the same as that of 12V to CPU, but the input 48V comes in, and the loss of the reverse or the loss on the bus line will be reduced much, and the current is only 1/4.

      New progress in industrial power supply and power management devices

With the rapid development of various industries, the reliability, capacity / volume ratio and installation requirements of industrial power supply are getting higher and higher. In this regard, the development of industrial power supply has the following aspects: 1) higher power density, increasing conversion efficiency, reliability; 2) easy to install and expand, simplify application; 3) use digital signal control technology, form the digital communication interface with the outside world; 4) improve the integration and intelligent.

         As the core device of industrial equipment, industrial power should be guided by market demand and strive to break through the key circuit design and manufacturing technology that restricts the development of power supply.

The application of Jin Shengyang system

         In recent years, Jin Shengyang has developed a series of specialized power supply for smart grid, new energy, rail transit, medical, charging pile and other fields by using hundreds of patent technologies to solve many difficult problems encountered by customers in practical application, and has successfully applied it to various systems in the fields of smart grid, new energy, rail traffic, medical treatment, charging pile and other fields. Such as:

         Smart grid field: power generation link, combined with new energy development, PV series power supply for 1500V photovoltaic system research and development, suitable for the photovoltaic converge box, photovoltaic inverter system; transformer link, PV45 series power supply to the SVG industry research and development, can directly from the high voltage bus power supply to the control system; distribution link, MBP series charging The power supply is suitable for DTU, TTU and other systems. Intelligent management links, LS/LD series AC-DC power supply are applied to smart meters and instruments.

         The field of rail transportation: the 6-150W URB1D/URF1D series DC-DC power supply meets the certification of the EN50155 iron standard. It is suitable for the railway vehicle electronic equipment of 72V, 96V and 110V, as well as the rail equipment, such as the railway monitoring equipment, the air conditioner controller, the information display screen, the gate control system and so on.

         Medical field: G (H) _S series DC/DC power supply and LH-MU series AC-DC power supply for the third edition medical certification, suitable for the injection pump, multi-function monitor, nutrition box and other diagnostic or auxiliary medical equipment.

The field of charging pile: CAN/CAN-FD/RS485 series communication module, wide pressure DC-DC module, LO/LM/LI series AC-DC module and so on is suitable for DC charging pile and AC charging pile system.

           Automotive electronics field: CF series DC-DC power supply conforms to AEC-Q100 design standards, and is suitable for automotive communication system motor controller, engine control system, battery management system (BMS) and other systems.

The intelligence of power management is the trend of the times

           Wei Zhi, the manager of Maxim Integrated TTS Asia application engineer, believes that the miniaturization of electronic products is a common theme in many fields, consumer electronics from portable to wearable; industry 4 drives smaller, more powerful uPLC needs. Light, thin and small are the key words of various brands to promote products, and supporting the development of the market can not be separated from the progress of power management technology. With the continuous improvement of power density, the high intelligence of power management is the general trend of power technology development. Whether it is high power data center, medium power industrial application, or low power portable equipment, the output power per unit area can be a very important index. To this end, we are always innovating in advanced technology, packaging technology, design and system architecture. Maxim's latest MAX17222 nanoPower boost, with high efficiency in the industry and 300nA low static current (IQ), can reduce up to 50% of the project area compared to similar products, and provides a peak efficiency of 95%, reducing heat. It helps wearable and consumer IoT design to achieve more powerful functions and performance in smaller size and obtain longer battery life.

Low power system management

         Increasing throughput is the key to industry, data center, consumer electronics, and even automotive electronics, and the core technology to achieve this goal lies in the management of low power system. The power management device is an important source of Maxim sales revenue. We not only provide the leading solutions in the consumer products, but also work on innovative technologies in the automotive, industrial, communications and data centers, and provide high cost performance products.

         In the automotive field, the increase in the proportion of electronic components not only increases the demand for PMIC, but also promotes the sales volume of automobiles. At the same time, electric and hybrid vehicles also put forward new demands and challenges for PMIC. Maxim's automotive power supply can operate at a voltage of up to 3.5V or even 2V, and can withstand up to 40V/42V load voltage. The duty ratio of 99% ensures that the starting and stopping or cold start of the motor is a stable output voltage. Higher working frequency and spread spectrum mode can not only avoid interference with AM band, but also solve EMI problem, and allow small external components to be used.

        In the field of big data and cloud computing, the revolution of data center is being carried out - more and more enterprise servers are migrating to the cloud. This revolution drives the new system architecture and business models to be derived, and promotes the demand for PMIC in cloud computing and big data applications.  The power management solution of Maxim can help users cope with this challenge calmly.


The Chinese market needs innovation and Application

         The start of China's photovoltaic market is lagging behind the international leading European and American countries, but it has developed rapidly. In a very short time, centralized inverter technology and power station installation are in the leading position in the world. The development of centralized inverter technology comes from professional photovoltaic inverter enterprises, as well as ups and wind power converter enterprises. Their rapid development in the market is based on previous technology accumulation, and these young companies have a strong spirit of innovation, no traditional design along the foreign inverters, and new technologies from Infineon, such as PrimePACK? 3 and EconoDUAL? 3, make China's photovoltaic inverter market The ability to compete is unprecedented.

Photovoltaic system is developing towards 1500V DC direction. For new applications, we will prepare new technical solutions. The new generation of PrimePACK? 3, which adopts IGBT5.Xt technology, can make the single capacity more than 1MW, which truly reflects the value of 1500V PV system. To promote the technology of 1500V PV system, we cooperate with third party laboratories and certification bodies with design consultation ability to serve the whole industry chain.

The Chinese market needs diversification

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With the start of the distributed photovoltaic power market in China, the demand for customers has new characteristics. Europe and the United States and Oceania are the mature market of distributed photovoltaic power generation. The inverter technology is mature. Each family has its own technical scheme, even patent circuit, in order to pursue higher efficiency. Chinese inverters must have innovation to win this market, their technology must be diversified, and some IGBT modules need to be customized to help customers and industries to achieve technological transcendence. In order to strengthen the technical cooperation with customers and improve the level of support for Chinese customers, we have established an effective platform such as the joint laboratory to explore the technical development trend and solutions of the devices and systems, and to solve the problems of the application of power devices in the laboratory.

        The series inverter needed for the development of distributed generation in China is just in time to catch up with the development of Infineon IGBT technology. We have developed several TRENCHSTOP? 5 chips suitable for three level applications, including high speed H5, S5 series, and low saturation voltage drop L5 series, which enable customers to have the opportunity in the topology of the circuit and control technology. Innovation. I believe that the starting point of China's distributed generation will be quite high and develop very fast.

Photovoltaic customers expect more than 20 years of life, power devices are also a bottleneck, need our technical and technological guarantee, the guarantee of our quality system, and also need to do reliability design at the application level, which is necessary for us and customers to work together to achieve.

New direction of photovoltaic inverter

         The application market of solar energy / photovoltaic will continue to grow steadily, especially in China. Technically, inverters will develop towards higher energy efficiency, wider input voltage, smaller volume and higher reliability. Therefore, more high-frequency applications and new materials, such as the application of silicon carbide (SiC), more functions, integrated multilevel module applications, and so on, may be the main direction of the inverter design in the future.

It offers high energy efficiency and smaller leakage current solutions.

        A Morimi semiconductor has been committed to the field of new energy. It also focuses on the development of new technology and the application of new materials and devices. On the photovoltaic inverter, we have introduced our third generation of super junction MOS tubes. Compared with the previous generation, the new generation of MOS tubes greatly reduce the resistance RDS (on) and the gate charge Qg by using the charge balance technology, which can significantly improve the energy efficiency of the system and withstand the extreme DV /dt rating. If N channel MOSFET FCH023N65S3_F155 and FCH040N65S3_F155100% pass through avalanche breakdown test, the typical values of RDS (on) are 19.5 m omega and 35.4 m Omega respectively, and the typical Qg values are 222 NC and 136 NC respectively. In IGBT, the fourth generation field cut-off (Field-stop) IGBT of the Trench channel greatly reduces the turn off loss, thus enabling IGBT to work at a higher frequency to meet the higher power density requirements. For example, FGH50T65SQD_F155 and FGH75T65SQD_F155 have the characteristics of high current capability, high input impedance, fast switching and tight parameter distribution. In addition, SiC diode is also a fist product of A Morimi semiconductor in photovoltaic applications, and now it has mass production. We have higher energy efficiency and smaller leakage current than our competitors.

      A Morimi semiconductor is not only an industry leading product on discrete devices, but also our solar power integration module (PIM) is introduced in combination with our advanced technology on power modules. The integrated modules include the IGBT and the rectifier, using the exclusive groove field cut-off Technology (FS) of A Morimi semiconductor and the strong and fast fast recovery diode, which is configured as a mid point clamp type T topology with energy efficiency exceeding 98%. The configurable packaging platform uses high power direct bonding copper (DBC) substrate technology and proprietary press-fit pins, which can provide higher power density, higher performance and higher reliability.

Improvement of the seventh generation IGBT technology of MITSUBISHI motor

         With the development of energy storage technology and the formulation and introduction of relevant standards, energy storage technology will provide a guarantee for the stable operation of power grids. This will promote the further expansion and development of PV market.

         From the large market demand, the market share of centralized photovoltaic power station will decline in the future due to the influence of subsidies and other national policies, and the market share of the distributed photovoltaic power generation will show a growing trend.

        In order to cope with the impact of subsidised subsidies, market demand for PV modules and PV inverters will be strengthened. At present, 1500V and other higher voltage PV modules will largely compensate for the drop in payment subsidies in terms of cost reduction. Therefore, with the expectation of the market, photovoltaic modules with higher voltage such as 1500V will accelerate the pace of entering the market. In addition, the efficiency and reliability of photovoltaic power generation will be improved to improve the output of photovoltaic power plant, and reduce the maintenance cost of photovoltaic power plant and photovoltaic inverter. Therefore, the application of new technology in photovoltaic power plant and photovoltaic inverter will be constantly strengthened, and will promote the healthy competition and healthy development of the photovoltaic power generation industry.

Application module of 1500V photovoltaic inverter for MITSUBISHI motor

        In view of the development of the photovoltaic power market to the higher voltage and the demand for efficiency, the MITSUBISHI motor has introduced the modules for the application of 1500V photovoltaic inverter, including the 1 and 1 modules of the new package and the IGBT module of the seventh generation standard package.

        The 1 and 1 modules of the new package are rated for large current, which is suitable for non parallel or less parallel requirements, and the 1 and 1 package can be flexible to form a T type three level or I type three level topology to meet the diversified needs of the customers.

          The IGBT module of the seventh generation NX package adopts the latest generation of CSTBTTM silicon chip and RFC diode silicon chip technology of MITSUBISHI motor, and is compatible with the mainstream device packaging in the industry. Therefore, it can help to achieve higher efficiency of photovoltaic inverter and improve the competitiveness of the inverter. On the other hand, the integrated substrate of the seventh generation IGBT module and the SLC technology of direct resin encapsulation will greatly enhance the life of the module itself and the photovoltaic inverter used in the module. In short, this is a cost-effective solution.


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